While we often use the word “anime” as an umbrella term for anything with a Japanese animation look and feel to it, anime itself as an artform is diverse and infinite in variation.
Just like all art styles, anime has been shaped by the rise and development of new technologies that make drawing more efficient and cleaner.
Some anime artists, however, stick to the old fashioned method of pencil and paper. Let’s explore the major anime styles, who they’re used by, and what makes them unique.
Traditional Hand-Drawn Anime Style
Anime, in the sense of Japanese animation, came about in the 1960s, a period in which all animation was done by hand.
It borrowed its style from manga, which was being drawn and published as early as the 1900s. As anime grew in popularity, artists everywhere were concreting its signature style, which would last until even the days of CGI.
Drawing by hand, however, is not as simple as pen and paper. Achieving the intricate details and bright, fashionable colors characteristic of the art style requires specialized materials.
Interestingly, many of the methods used by Japanese anime artists were also used by contemporary animators like Walt Disney.
Materials Used For Hand-Drawn Anime Style
Whether you’re drawing art in the anime art-style or hand-drawing animation, there are a few art supplies that art staples among any artist.
First and foremost, traditional hand-drawn anime requires the use of high-quality paper. Regular printer paper is too thin and will warp if used with markers or watercolor.
Paper that’s too thick can be expensive or impractical to use, and the finish of the paper can affect the drawing experience.
Many artists who work in the traditional style of anime prefer to keep a sketchbook with them for working out ideas.
Pencils are the most common drawing utensil used, although artist pencils are different than your typical number 2’s used in school. Artist pencils range in hardness and use a lettering system to indicate the strength of the lead.
The letter B represents the softer side of the scale, whereas the letter H represents the harder (or lighter) side of the scale. A 9B pencil is the softest available, and a 9H pencil is the hardest. Most artists carry an HB pencil (of medium hardness), as well as 2B, 3B, and others suited to their needs.
Mechanical pencils are also commonly used, as they are good for achieving finely tuned, even lines. Like traditional pencils, their lead also has many variations–in this case, by thickness.
Next time you pick up a mechanical pencil, look for the size of the lead used, usually indicated by millimeters.
Don’t be fooled, however.
Although we commonly call it lead, most pencils use graphite for their drawing element. Some pencils are made entirely of graphite and are popular among artists.
They’re easier to sharpen, and a thin coating on the outside of the pencil ensures that your hands don’t get dirty from the graphite.
One more crucial art supply for traditional hand-drawn anime is an eraser. That sounds self-explanatory, but artists’ erasers are different from your typical pink erasers.
Kneaded erasers are made of a dense putty that can be manipulated and rolled out into any shape.
This allows artists to erase even the most minute details and carefully revise their pieces. One thing that anime art styles are known for are their number of intricate details, including hair, clothing, and color.
In contrast, however, forms are typically simplified in anime. While anatomy is true to life, things such as shading and perspective are condensed or otherwise simplified.
This affects the materials that traditional artists must use in order to achieve this look.
Felt-tip markers are popular for detailing and bright colors, whereas colored pencils are great for color blocking large areas. Some artists work exclusively with pens, with ballpoint pens becoming increasingly more popular among traditional hand-drawn artists today.
Manga artists will often use pens, markers, or India ink to exaggerate bold lines and manga elements, like speech bubbles.
Traditional hand-drawn anime styles have a look to them that can’t be achieved any other way. If you’ve seen a Studio Ghibli film, you can sense the amount of hard work it took to create such dynamic and beautiful scenes.
At movie studios like Studio Ghibli, even short frames of animation can take hours of work and many hands to finish. Hand-drawn anime, while visually stunning, is especially time-consuming. Hand-drawn artists don’t have the luxury of “control-z” or a color picker.
Major anime productions require an assembly line of sorts for everything from outlining to color, shading, backgrounds, and more.
With hand-drawing so time-consuming, it’s a wonder if the chibi art style resulted from fed up artists wanting to draw a character without having to work out all the details.
Digital Hand-Drawn Anime Style
Because of the barriers that drawing by hand presents, many artists have taken to drawing digitally. Digital hand-drawn anime gives a similar look and feel to pencil and paper, but with the convenience of digital tools.
With art software and drawing tablets, an artist has access to thousands of tools, including a color picker, layers, pencils, pens, watercolor, eraser, and more importantly, an undo button (that famous CTRL+Z).
A drawing tablet puts thousands of art supplies into the artist’s pocket. It allows the artist to work off references, 3D models, and tools previously unavailable to the traditional artist (like pattern tools, for example).
But some people question if digital anime artists are truly talented or if they are merely relying on the number of tools available.
The majority of digital tools seek to replicate the hand-drawing process as closely as possible, which makes it appealing to artists in the first place.
One thing that makes drawing digitally almost identical to hand-drawing is the stylus. Styluses are incredibly sophisticated pieces of technology.
Back in the day, the biggest barrier that kept hand-drawn artists from going digital was the lack of pressure sensitivity in styluses and drawing tablets.
Artists found themselves unable to adapt to the flat, opaque lines that styluses would create. Today, almost all styluses have pressure-sensing technology that makes them function like a real pencil.
Changing the parameters in the drawing software will then allow the stylus to function like watercolor, a pen, or whatever tool the artist chooses.
Drawing software also allows the user to manipulate settings such as opacity, hardness, stabilization, and size.
The key advantage to digitally-drawing anime is that it’s much more efficient than traditional hand-drawn anime, whether animated or not. Special tools for shading and highlighting take a significant load off the artist’s shoulders.
Most applications also offer a variety of custom made tools by other artists, which can flawlessly produce hair, clothing details like zippers or lace, or even create 3D reference models.
Hand-drawn artists, on the other hand, are stuck with wooden manikins and must produce each detail with painstaking effort.
Because these details take so long to produce, early versions of anime art become increasingly more simplified in order to accommodate the amount of time and effort it goes into finishing a piece.
These simplified forms define the look of anime, but with the advent of digital art, anime has exploded with new, nuanced styles and complexities.
Traditional hand-drawn anime will always have a nostalgic feel to it, but today, many (if not most artists) prefer to draw digitally for the convenience it provides.
CGI Generated Anime Style
Technology continues to reach new heights today, and one of those heights is CGI or computer-generated imagery. Recently, Studio Ghibli, a famed anime movie studio, made headlines when they announced that their latest film would be in CGI and not hand-drawn.
This film, called “Earwig and the Witch,” relies entirely on CGI for its characters, backgrounds, and objects. That doesn’t mean it omits the classic Ghibli style, however.
The animation still possesses a style of natural beauty with fantastical elements, with 3D characters. Some people criticized the change, saying that anime isn’t anime when it’s 3D.
Even Disney made the jump from 2D to 3D recently, with “The Princess and the Frog” being the last hand-drawn film in the studio’s existence.
Most films today are produced using CGI, so it seems self-explanatory that the legendary anime studio would jump on board with the trend.
CGI anime is slowly gaining traction in the art world. In terms of efficiency, it’s unparalleled. While not many TV shows rely on CGI today, there are quite a few video games and feature films that use it.
Characters like Hatsune Miku often appear in CGI, which has led to an increased interest in these anime art styles.
One downside to CGI is that while’s it more efficient, it’s also more expensive. CGI requires the use of specialized software, which can be costly.
It also relies on animators with knowledge of both hand-drawn and computer generation techniques, and finding an artist who can understand the software can be a challenge in and of itself.
But many artists use CGI for their own personal work and not just as a part of a studio or team.
CGI anime artists and game developers often cross paths since they often use the same software.
An example of this is the Unreal engine, which serves as the foundation for many of the biggest game titles.
It’s also frequently used for art and animation because it has a wide range of tools and is user friendly.
Because the Unreal engine is so popular, more and more people have been using it to create anime and animations. One character model can be posed in any way, cutting down on time it takes to produce scenes or storyboards.
Look and Feel
The use of CGI in anime art is a controversial topic. If some artists have qualms with digital art for not being able to replicate the magic of hand-drawn art, then those qualms are even greater with CGI.
CGI anime certainly looks different from the TV shows and manga we all grew up with.
It still possesses the elements that define the anime style, including simplified forms and reality. CGI artists also remain true to anime tropes, like colorful hair, large eyes, and familiar expressions and symbols.
The look and feel of CGI anime are different, but how different is it?
It begs the question of what truly defines anime art styles. If anime were merely defined by large eyes and simplified forms, then CGI would be no different.
But more people are pointing towards less talked about features of anime, things like framing, character personalities, plot lines, and color palettes.
In the case of Studio Ghibli’s new film, animators are able to use CGI to take their film to new levels that even digital drawing methods can’t reach.
Those new levels include more realistic explosions, fantasy elements, and in the case of Earwig and the Witch, a strand of hair that turns into a pile of worms.
The Future for Anime
One important thing to consider is that many artists today use a combination of one or more of these styles to produce their work. In particular, many artists sketch an idea out on paper and scan it into a drawing software in order to colorize it.
CGI artists still rely on concept art and storyboarding to produce their work. Some CGI produced characters are on hand-drawn backgrounds, or vice versa.
Mixing these methods is a matter of both style and convenience. It’s evident that anime from years ago looks drastically different from today. However, there’s something that still remains.
What does the future hold for anime?
With new mediums like VR and holograms emerging onto the scene, will anime adapt?
The answer is yes, anime is one of the most technology-forward art forms, yet it never seems to stray from its hand-drawn roots.
Wherever anime styles go, one thing that is for certain is that they will still be loved by artists and fans all over the world.
The last thing that will stay debatable is that, will anime lose its magic when the artist’s soul is taken away with computer-generated graphics?